AUDIENCE: High School Social Studies
INDICATOR: Examine situations in Md and U.S. History that illustrate conflict between conscience and respect for authority.
OBJECTIVE: Student will be able to compare and contrast the status of slaves in the Border States and the Confederacy between January 1, 1863 and July 1868.
TITLE:

A CRISIS OF CONSCIENCE

We have just completed our unit on the Civil War and Reconstruction. We studied the institution of slavery and how it was based on law in America. Imagine that you lived on a Maryland farm in January 1865 and found a runaway slave hiding in your barn. What would you do? What could you do? Use your knowledge about slaves in the Border States, Confederacy and Northern States to create a short essay on what you would do.

The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves in the territories under rebellion as of January 1, 1863. The XIV Amendment, freeing all slaves, was not ratified until July 1868. Be sure to include comparisons (similarities) and contrasts (differences) in your essay. Be sure your essay encompasses each of the three classes of slaves: those in the border states, those in the areas of the Confederacy occupied by Federal Forces, and those in parts of the South still controlled by the Confederacy. Base your actions on appropriate law. Use the scoring guidelines to help you plan your essay.

Using the material covered in class, write an essay comparing and contrasting the status of slaves in the Confederacy and the Border States between January 1863 and July 1868. What would you do if you found a runaway slave and were living during this time period in Maryland? Use the scoring guidelines to use the information you learned during this unit to help you complete this task.

SCORING TOOL

Use the following guidelines to score essays.

Standard 4 point answer:

Essay reflects a through understanding of the chronology of events transpiring between 1863 and 1865 and includes each significant event; and, presents a highly effective argument substantiating author's decision. The status of slaves in all three jurisdictions is presented accurately and completely.

Standard 3 point answer:

Essay reflects a substantial understanding of the chronology of events and includes three of the four significant events; and, presents an advanced argument substantiating author's decision. The status of slaves in all three jurisdictions is mentioned, with no inaccuracies.

Standard 2 point answer:

Essay reflects only a partial understanding of the chronology of events and includes two of the four significant events; and, presents an intermediate argument substantiating author's decision.

Standard 1 point answer:

Essay reflects a minimum understanding of the chronology of events and fails to include more than one of the significant events; and, states an action to be taken without explaining reason for action. The status of slaves is mentioned, but has major inaccuracies or omissions.

Standard 0 point answer:

Essay does not reflect comprehension of chronology of events, does not explain relationship between significant events, and does not give a proposed action or reason for proposed action. No comparison or contrast of the status of slaves is mentioned.

ANSWER CUES

The Border States of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri all allowed slavery within their borders in 1865. Slave labor was used to help supply items for the Federal Army.

The Dred Scott Decision in March 1857 declared Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional and states that the federal government may not deprive a citizen of "property" (i.e. slaves).

The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863.

Congress voted against the abolition of slavery in June 1864.

The rebellious states ceased hostilities in April and May 1865.

The XIV Amendment was ratified by the states in July 1868.

SAMPLE RESPONSES

(4 Point Response)

Individuals confined to slavery in 1865 could exist in three distinctly different circumstances. Slaves in the Border States were still subject to the distress of slavery, and many continued to produce goods which their masters sold to the federal government to help subjugate the states under rebellion. Slaves who lived in those parts of the South under the control of the Confederate government also continued to exist in slavery. Only slaves who lived in areas of the Confederacy which were controlled by the Union troops were eligible to be freed under the provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation after January 1863. Although some Congressman wanted to free slaves in the North, Congress voted against that proposal in 1864, so slaves in the Border States continued to be slaves.

If I found a runaway slave in my barn in January 1865, I would help him escape north to Pennsylvania. I know that he wouldn't get any help from the troops or government, because the Supreme Court and Congress both didn't have the guts to stop slavery when they could. I would know this and I would know that slavery is wrong, so I would have to do something myself to help the slave get to freedom.

(2 Point Response)

Lincoln freed the slaves in 1863, but only the ones in the South. Slaves in the Border States were still slaves, so they had to keep working for no pay and they didn't have any rights. Slavery was not abolished in America until 1868.

If I found a runaway slave, I would turn him in because the law said he had to work for his master. I could get in trouble if I helped a slave runaway, and there would be a lot of soldiers around, so I would turn him in so I wouldn't be in trouble with the law.

(0 Point Response)

The Civil War was the longest war in history. It lasted a long time and a lot of people got killed. I went to some battlefields with my Dad two summers ago, and there were a lot of statues and cannons all over.

(0 Point Response)

If I found a slave I would probably runaway with him so we wouldn't have to go to school and take tests and eat rotten food.